Just a warning: I my come off sounding like an angry parent, and I’m going to try very, very hard to be diplomatic about this, because I love authors. They are my chosen tribe, my people. I love to help them, and I love working with the written word. So, thinking about how many independent authors end up frustrated with the process of hiring a freelancer, and then seeing the result of their efforts in the form of lackluster job postings at freelancing sites, frankly, it breaks my heart.
Even though traffic through my WordPress site has picked up in the last couple years, I still rely on sites like Guru.com, Elance.com, and Upwork.com to fill in the gaps between projects. Because I’ve been freelancing since 2011, and using similar sites just as long, it’s impossible for me to calculate just how many job postings I’ve applied to, let alone read, over the years. But, across all of those ads, even across platforms, I’ve noticed a frustrating pattern: lack of informative data.
“Show, don’t tell” is a commonly cited rule among authors, editors, and literary professors the world over. The dreaded “infodump” is to always be avoided. “Showing” language is implied to be better writing; however, “telling” language can be just as active, clear, and compelling. Cecilia Tan at Uncanny Magazine makes a solid argument that strong, readable (i.e., “publishable”) writing can both show and tell!
I love Writer’s Digest, and I really, really like the guest columns that Brian Klems will often feature in his corner of the WD world: The Writer’s Dig. He’s thoughtful, funny, and always seems to show up just when I need him. Would that make him a superhero? In my world, I guess, but you’d have to determine that for yourself…
Just like whether or not you’d like to outline your novel. You don’t have to, of course, but it is one way to get the proverbial ducks to align without worrying about missing one or two details . . . er . . . ducks? along the way. Now, this is coming from a dyed-in-the-wool, to-the-letter Virgo who makes to-do lists for her to-do lists. I write down the money I owe for my monthly bills in three different places to make sure I don’t miss any due dates, but I almost never outline a novel once I start writing it. I have a line, a scene, or even just a character with a loose idea of the plot and start. It’s the only place in my mostly structured life that I can actually kinda let loose and fly by the seat of my pants, which might explain why I put my money-making efforts into reading books for a living and not publishing them.
Having said all of that, here is the article from the brilliant K.M. Weiland hosted by Brian Klems and Writer’s Digest.
Mention the word outline in a room full of writers, and you’re sure to ignite a firestorm of passionate debate. Writers either love outlines, or they hate them. We either find them liberating, or we can’t stand how confining they are.
My experience has been that more often than not, those who swear they dislike outlines are thinking of them in the wrong ways. Outlines are not meant to trap you into preset ideas or sap your creativity before you start the first draft. Outlines are also definitely not meant to be lifeless Roman-numeral lists.
For those partaking in National Novel Writing Month this year, I’ll aim to share some interesting writing tips, motivating quotes, and intriguing articles about novels and their creators. I want to keep your spirits up, be your cheerleader as I am not participating myself this year. The last couple years I’ve missed NaNoWriMo, but I’m aiming to get back in the swing next year! Now, on to the article about the legacy of the novel and how its history may not be as recent as we once thought…
I was misled by my advisers, as Bertie Wooster would say. At university in the early 1970s, I was led to believe the novel originated in England in the 18th century, and no professor told me otherwise as I pursued my PhD in the 1980s. Sometimes Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe was mentioned as a prototype, but according to literary dogma the novel experienced a kind of virgin birth with Pamela, Samuel Richardson’s epistolary novel of 1740. But outside the walls of academe, in those alternative classrooms called used bookshops, I kept coming across books that certainly looked like novels but obviously predated Pamela. There was not only Lady Murasaki’s Tale of Genji, a huge novel written around 1010, but the shorter Tale of the Lady Ochikubo, written a few decades earlier. I picked up the Everyman’s edition of The Story of Burnt Njal, a 13th-century Icelandic fiction that was labeled a “saga” but looked very much like a realistic novel. I came across multivolume Chinese novels from the Ming Dynasty like The Golden Lotus, a sordidly realistic novel from Shakespeare’s time. I read Robert Graves’s White Goddess and was puzzled by his reference to “a novel called The Recognitions” that dated from the 4th century. There were novels in the 4th century?
In the last two posts, I’ve discussed beta reading and proofreading and how these processes will enhance the writing in your books and ultimately boost book sales. The more professional and easier to read the content in your book is, the more likely people will buy it, tell others about it, and leave you shiny 5-star reviews—no matter what genre you’re writing in. But in the vast world of fiction, genres like horror, erotica, paranormal, and sometimes sci-fi, can be seen comparatively as “less than” their literary and more “slice of life” type counterparts. If your work falls under any of those (or any combination of those) styles, investing in any one of these three services will do a great service to your book or novel and its subsequent sales.
Going a step beyond beta reading and proofreading, copy editing is far more invasive as a process. It is looking at the construction of the writing, each sentence, to make sure the words within that sentence work well together and to make sure each sentence builds to the next one without being redundant, overly complex, or laden with passive and unbalanced language. Unlike its more simplistic counterparts, copy editing will take on issues with layout, formatting, and developmental continuity (at every level, from running headers to table of contents to lists of figures and images to the color of your protagonist’s hair and the name of their one and only cousin).
Because this process is much more invasive and, in my opinion, more strict, I chose the definition provided by the Society for Editors and Proofreaders. Yes, it is a British source, and it’s an articulate and detail-oriented definition that leaves little to doubt. That’s precisely what I like about it.
Here is how they define a copy editor –
A professional copy-editor begins by checking that the copy is complete. Do the chapter titles and other elements match the list of contents? Are all the illustrations to hand? Is there a list of captions? What system of referencing is required? Are there footnotes or endnotes? Then the editor cleans up a copy of the document, fixes page set-up, spacing and fonts, cuts unwanted formatting, creates a stylesheet and starts to identify problems.
Working through the material, the copy-editor corrects errors in spelling, punctuation, grammar, style and usage, but also very long sentences and overuse of italic, bold, capitals, exclamation marks and the passive voice. They correct or query doubtful facts, weak arguments, plot holes and gaps in numbering. In fiction, they also check that characters haven’t changed their name or hair colour, look for sudden changes from first to third person and monitor the timeline, among other things.
And, here is how they define copy editing –
Copy-editing takes the raw material (the ‘copy’: anything from a novel to a web page) and makes it ready for publication as a book, article, website, broadcast, menu, flyer, game or even a tee-shirt.
The aim of copy-editing is to ensure that whatever appears in public is accurate, easy to follow, fit for purpose and free of error, omission, inconsistency and repetition. This process picks up embarrassing mistakes, ambiguities and anomalies, alerts the client to possible legal problems and analyses the document structure for the typesetter/designer.
One of the things that beta reading, proofreading, and copy editing seem to have in common is that they all look at the “larger” and “smaller” elements of the document simultaneously. It then becomes a matter of who fixes what and when. If you are pursuing the craft and services of a copy editor, it is most likely you have not published your book yet and it has not been under a proofreader’s loving gaze. You may copy edit before you select a beta reader, but you don’t necessarily have to. Especially, if you can find a beta reader who copy edits. (Or, a professional readerwho does all three…)
Having a clear understanding of what a beta reader, proofreader, and copy editor bring to your document will help you select the right services for your document—no matter which stage of the game you are in. The great thing, in this quick-pub age, is that you can now, technically, perform these services at any stage of the game. However, knowing how hard it is to delete stuff off of the Internet, it may be a good idea to be more proactive, take some time, and get your manuscript edited before you publish.
Some writers and authors may wonder at the real value of investing in a beta reader and what kind of services will actually be provided.
“Well, I’ve got a cousin who reads lots of books. He’ll help me.”
“My best friend is an English teacher; she’ll give me good advice.”
While these options may seem like solid and cost-effective solutions, relying on friends and relatives for constructive, literary feedback can put writers and authors at a disadvantage. Most especially if that close circle of advisors errs on the side of camaraderie over criticism.
Since Merriam and Webster kind of let me down in their definition of “proofreading,” I decided to test the vast information waters of Google and got a Wikipediadefinition of “beta reading” that is a bit more extensive, and articulate to boot.
…a non-professional reader who reads a written work, generally fiction, with the intent of looking over the material to find and improve elements such as grammar and spelling, as well as suggestions to improve the story, its characters, or its setting. Beta reading is typically done before the story is released for public consumption. Beta readers are not explicitly proofreaders or editors, but can serve in that context.
See? All kinds of fun things going on in that definition. Let’s unpack some of it, shall we?
“a non-professional reader” — Now, looking at that, you might jump back to the beginning of this article and say, “Hey, my cousin isn’t a professional reader.” Or, “Neither is my English teacher friend!” And this might be my only bone of contention with Wikipedia’s definition: beta readers should be professional readers. Granted, not every single reader in your audience will be a professional reader–they don’t need to be. However, if you want an honest, educated, and sometimes hard-to-swallow reading of your book and an effective opinion on how those non-professional readers will receive your book, you want someone who knows how to read books critically and not just for passing pleasure.
Ahh! Not “critically”?! Right?
Yes, critically, because there will be professional readers–critics, of course–who may (or eventually will) read your book, and their opinions are the ones that get passed around on social media and will reflect on your book. Which, for some of those non-professional readers, will determine if they buy it or not. What you need to ask yourself is, will your cousin or your best friend be honest with you about your writing even if their opinion is unflattering? This is where growth as a writer comes from, being able to take constructive criticism that doesn’t feel “constructive” when it’s being heard or read.
But, like Amanda Shofner’s quote above says, you need to remember that a beta reader’s opinions are not about you personally–even though your work feels deeply and inherently personal–but your book. The object that will reflect your work ethic, your effort, and your professional image as an author. Writers can also expect comments that are strictly personal opinions–even from professional beta readers. An author doesn’t have to take every piece of advice/criticism/guidance provided; you want the story to be yours, and it should be. But a beta reader can make sure that your story will be presentable and meet commercial readers’ expectations. Something a non-professional reader may not be able to provide, even if they are willing to be blatantly honest (with minor exception to that English teacher, actually).
“typically done before the story is released” — Unlike proofreading, beta reading does not have a specific place in the publishing process other than before you release the book to the public. However, if you’ve already published the book and you’re getting reviews that mention inconsistency in character development, plot structure, or the entire narrative’s arc, a single round of beta reading would definitely help to clear up those kinds of issues.
“not explicitly proofreaders or editors” — This much is true. Not all proofreaders are beta readers, not all copy editors are beta readers, and not all beta readers are proofreaders or copy editors, but they most certainly can overlap. Effective proofreaders and copy editors will comment on things that a beta reader would comment on, but they may not change them for you. On the flip side, effective beta readers will comment on issues with grammar, spelling, punctuation, even if they may not know how to change or correct them for you.
Overall, investing in beta reading services is making an investment in yourself, your craft, and your potential book sales. The adage that you need to spend money to make it didn’t become an adage for nothing. Hiring a beta reader will boost your book sales because the results will show every kind of reader that you cared enough to put out the best book that you could by making effective use of all the tools at your disposal.
Have you hired a beta reader recently? If you haven’t, would you consider it now? Would love to read about your experiences and opinions in the comments below!
As if the very act of writing isn’t hard enough, right? The passion and dedication it takes to sit down and put your heart and soul in a Word document is highly commendable, but then you have to make sure your commas, semicolons, and parentheses–not to mention adverbs, adjectives, and nouns and verbs–are all in the “right” places (some of which are subjective) and consistent. And that is only the tip of the writing and publishing iceberg.
Did any of that sound like a foreign language to you?
That’s why you need professional proofreading services–especially in a publishing world that might see your genre or category of writing as “less than” (erotica, horror, and paranormal writers, just to name a few, I’m looking at you). Every ounce of validity and credibility that can be given to these genres is needed to generate strong book sales and fan followings. Two surefire ways to generate validity and credibility is to make sure your language is clear and active and to make sure your style choices and punctuation are consistent throughout your manuscript.
To read and correct mistakes in (a written or printed piece of writing)
And I only say that because beta reading and copy editing, which I’ll write about in more detail in later blog posts, could technically be described the same way. However, the specificity of proofreading is based on where in the publishing process this particular style of editing occurs. In one of the last-ditch efforts to catch errors before going to press, a proofread is a penultimate reading that looks at every element of the document, from layout to commas, to make sure it is clear of spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors and layout or style inconsistencies.
In most cases, a manuscript will be given a copy-edit, beta read, or developmental edit before it receives proofreading services. Proofreading traditionally “fixes” things like word usage errors (they’re for their, you’re for your, etc.), making all the quotation marks and apostrophes look the same (“curly” or “straight”), or minor formatting and layout inconsistencies (like applying a half-inch indent to each new paragraph or using periods, em and en dashes, and ellipses the same way in serial data).
Even though a good proofreader will make comments about larger issues if they have been left unedited (like plot inconsistencies, major language issues [subject-verb agreement or switching between past and present tense], and applying major layout or formatting styles [prepping for Kindle publishing]), these issues are usually met and resolved by a copy editor, developmental editor, or beta reader before sending the manuscript to a proofreader.
Have you invested in proofreading services recently? Why or why not? Did you have a good or bad experience? I’d love to see some of your stories or experiences in the comments below.
I work for this lovely lady, Ingrid Prescott, and she’s created a new lifestyle and wellness brand: Lovin Self. By combining a deep passion to work for herself with an even deeper passion to help people fulfill their own dreams, combat stress and fatigue with daily life, and take responsibility for the choices they’ve made, Ingrid promotes Lovin Self with the 2BMe campaign and jewelry line and Essential Moments bath salts and teas.
If that wasn’t enough, Ingrid set up another campaign, the iMatter Campaign, which includes a pledge card detailing how making this pledge guarantees SELF one day per week to be pampered and removed from “the daily grind.”
To further her message, Ingrid asked me to create a monthly newsletter with stories about fulfilling your dreams and making your daily life more simple by taking real, genuine care of SELF. I get to choose each month’s topic, the stories included, and conduct the research for each of the stories that require it. You will find links to each new issue in the sidebar of this blog: The LoveLetter.
So far, the newsletters have touched on building organization in one’s life, learning to truly love SELF without being selfish or self-centered, how to build emotional muscle, and dropping the mental baggage we all inevitably carry around with us. It’s a positive and uplifting message, when most of today’s messages seem to be so negative, divisive, and limiting. Lovin Self, the 2BMe campaign, and Ingrid’s and my efforts are all for expanding one’s life toward the ultimate limit: making that “impossible” dream come true.
Holy Crap Bag! Talk about an extended, involuntary hiatus. I got some editing gigs (Yay!); they were bumpier rides than I expected (Yay for ‘lessons learned’!); and I have less than a week left to the month and for my goal (Yay for working under pressure!).
Good thing I have motivation:
Marc Bolan (pictured here in 1977), of T.Rex fame, has been my rock ‘n’ roll muse for the last month or so. And at his beckon call, in the last couple of days, I have been able to complete my rough draft of Survival Instinct! I was worried there for a bit, but it’s in the trunk and growing some flavor as we speak. It’s strange with the shortcut missing from my desktop now, but Midnight Ladies is keeping its spot warm. Making a beckoning call of its own.
I know I’ve been an absent parent the last week or so. I hope that you’re all staying on better track than I did. But, being able to blast out a couple scenes whenever I could take a moment or two to write was a great feeling! I haven’t written in bursts like that for years. At least not since graduate school. And, it felt really, really good!
It was also kind of nice to “know” which scene was coming up next; though, not necessarily what would happen in that scene. Because, as usual, my characters surprised me. And those things may get redacted in the beta-reading and editing phases, but for right now, I’m pleased with how my characters reacted or acted out in certain scenes, and then held back in others.
While I considered one track of evidence to hook my antagonist, it was a surprise character–that I’d felt lurking in the background, but wasn’t certain of his existence–who ended up turning the tables. The homeless squatter was not completely on his own, though, because some outlying character connections among the supporting cast also came to the surface that really brought the plot to a head. Again, while those “logical” connections seem so now, it’s going to be some distance, a round of editing, and then some beta reading that will really test how those connections support or detract from the story.
Overall, coming back to this story after considering the option of letting it go unfinished–not all of them are home runs, kids–has added fuel to the fire. I’m excited to get back into Midnight Ladies, even if I don’t meet the end of the month goal. I got halfway there, finishing this rough draft, and I’m willing to take that for a win!
How are you all doing going into the final week? Are you close to making the 50K goal? Are you struggling? Did life get in the way for you, too? Don’t let it stop you. Keep on keeping on, Authors!